Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Divorce Across the Lifespan Final Paper Elizabeth Seckler for Laurie Bulock FST 602 (Human Development Across the Lifespan) MAFS-J003 October 27, 2011 Ã¢â¬Å"I doÃ¢â¬ . Two small words with such a big meaning. Although fewer individuals are marrying today, nearly 90% of Americans will eventually Ã¢â¬Å"tie the knotÃ¢â¬ (Goldstein and Kenney, as cited by Cherlin, 2011, pg. 300). However, the meaning of marriage is appearing to lose its effect on individuals, as divorce has become epidemic in the United States (Hoelter, as cited by Santrock, 2011, pg. 459). Since 1960, the divorce rate has varied through the years, increasing considerably from 1960 to 1980, then gradually declining from the early 1980s to 2005, but recently increasing from 2005 to 2007 (Popenoe, as cited by Santrock, 2011, pg. 459). Divorce is a major disruption in the family life-cycling process, adding complexity to whatever developmental tasks the family member is experiencing in its present phase (Peck and Manocherian, 1988, pg. 335). The negative impact of divorce is so strong that children of divorced parents struggle as adults to create a positive, healthy family environment for their own children. All too often, adults who experienced divorce as children prove less capable of breaking the cycle and instead pass on a legacy of tragedy to their children and their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s children (Fagan and Rector, 2000, pg. 17). Therefore, divorce does not just impact the individual at the time of the dissolution. Instead, divorce negatively impacts an individual in every stage of life. Infancy Of the stages of development across the lifespan, it may appear that infants are the least affected by divorce. However, while babies may not understand anything about separation or divorce, they do notice changes in their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ response to them, which impacts future development. According to psychoanalytic theorist, Erik Erikson, who developed eight stages of human development, the first psychosocial stage experienced in the first year of life is called trust vs. mistrust. Trust in infancy sets the stage for a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place to live (Santrock, 2011, pg. 23). Therefore, the foundation of all human interactions is trust. The degree to which trust is present will determine the nature and depth, as well as the length of relationships. If children develop basic trust, they progress through the rest of the developmental stages in a healthy way. However, if mistrust is the primary concept developed in infancy (as in a situation of divorce), the subsequent developmental stages are damaged (Rhodes, 2000, pg. 9). Still, EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s trust vs. mistrust is not resolved once and for all in the first year of life. Children who leave infancy with a sense of trust can still have their sense of mistrust activated at a later stage if their parents are separated or divorced under conflicting circumstances (Santrock, 20011, pg. 187). Additionally, babies experience the distress of the parents and become aware of the changes, and comings and goings of both parents and other caretakers as they form emotional ties. The combination of distressed and/or unavailable parents can create demanding or withdrawn children. As children approach the age of two, their striving toward independence is closely tied to feeling secure; with the loss of a parent, this security is threatened (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 347). Early Childhood Parents who are struggling with their own sense of failure, anger, guilt, and loss have difficulty providing a stabilizing, consistent environment for their children. This is especially hard for preschoolers who are developmentally starting to move away from home and toward peers and school. They have the beginnings of a sense of morality, combined with difficulty in distinguishing between their thoughts and reality, and thus are especially vulnerable to guilt and confusion (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 347). They may regress developmentally in a number of ways: separation anxiety, sleep disturbances, bed wetting, clinginess, fear of any leave taking, and aggressive fantasies (Wallerstein & Kelly, as cited by Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 347). Middle & Late Childhood The impact of divorce on children of this age is more profound (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 51). Children six to eight seem to have the hardest time of any age group (Wallerstein and Kelly, as cited by Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 351), as they are old enough to realized what is happening, but do not have adequate skills to deal with the disruption. They often feel a sense of responsibility, experience tremendous grief, and have a pervasive sadness and yearning for the departed parent. At the same time, they experience recurring fantasies of reconciliation and often think that they have the power to make it happen (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 51). Additionally, children of divorced parents have lower grades and other measures of academic achievement, are more likely to be held back, and are more likely to drop out of school (Institute for American Values, 2011, pg. 27). Adolescence Adolescence is a stage filled with many changes, both physical and emotional. It is a time when children are beginning their own process of leaving home and forming an identity separate from their parents. At the threshold of young adulthood, relationships take center stage (Wallerstein, Lewis and Blakeslee, 2000, pg. 32). However, the divorce of parents make romance and courtship more difficult and tenuous for the adolescence as they reach adulthood, and the effects on dating seem to be the strongest when divorce takes place during the childÃ¢â¬â¢s teenage years (Fagan & Rector, 2000). Older teenagers and young adults date more often, have more failed romantic relationships, and experience a more rapid turnover of dating partners. Not surprisingly, this leads to a great number of sexual partners, which in itself creates a grave risk that one will acquire an STD (Fagan & Rector, 2000). Because of their own unsettled nature, adolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ reactions to divorce include anger, a desire for a stable home, and a need for clear boundaries between them and their parents (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 354). For those teenagers who were already having difficulties, divorce creates an added burden, increasing the risk of emotional problems. In addition to the sexual acting out and multiple partners, children at this age may engage in self-destructive behavior, such as truancy, school failure and substance abuse, (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 354). Emerging Adulthood While the effects on dating seem to be the strongest when the divorce takes place during the childÃ¢â¬â¢s teenage years, they also carry over into adulthood (Fagan & Rector, 2000). In a twenty-five year study, Judith Wallerstein (2000) found that the effects of divorce on children crescendo as they enter adulthood. Their relationships with the opposite sex were often impaired by acute fears of betrayal and abandonment, and many also complained that they had never witnessed a man and a woman in a happy relationship and doubted that achieving such a relationship was possible (Wallerstein, Lewis and Blakeslee, 2000, pg. 2). A recent growth of cohabitation flows in part from the loss of confidence that many children of divorce have in marriage. Having witnessed divorce up close, many young adults are afraid that they will not achieve lifelong love and they feel handicapped in their search for love and marriage by their lack of models of a happy relationship between a man and a woman, t heir lack of knowledge about how to resolve differences, and their expectation of betrayal and abandonment by their partner (Institute for American Values, 2011, pg. 3). In addition, parental divorce increases the odds by 50 percent that adult children who do choose to marry will also divorce; this is partly because children of divorce are more likely to marry prematurely and partly because children of divorce often marry other children of divorce, thereby making their marriage even more unstable and uncertain (Institute for American Values, 2011, pg. 19). Because of increased life expectancy, a growing trend is divorce in families with children being launched (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 56). While divorce in childhood affects the development of emerging adulthood, a parental divorce in emerging adulthood has a profound impact, as well. When children are no longer the major focus of a couple, marriages become vulnerable and a decision is made to divorce. It may be that divorce oc curs when parents who have stayed together Ã¢â¬Å"for the childrenÃ¢â¬ now feel free to end a long and unhappy marriage (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 357). Despite the fact that they may be out of the parental home, divorce can be very stressful for young adults, with a sense of increased responsibility to their parents and a vulnerability to loyalty conflicts. In addition, young adults may experience a sense of loss of family home, abandonment by parents, and a concern about their own marriage (Ahrons, as cited by Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 356). The biggest risk for the adult child is when the parents Ã¢â¬Å"hold on to themÃ¢â¬ or assume the role of substitute spouse to fill the loneliness. When the parents are unable to make a meaningful new start, the children may have difficulty moving forward with their own lives (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 357). Middle Adulthood Divorce in middle adulthood may be more negative than divorce in early adulthood (Santrock, 2011, pg. 515). When divorce occurs for the couple in later life, it reverberates like a shock wave throughout the entire family and there may be three generations of family members whose lives will be altered by divorce (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 59). The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions and perceived responsibilities become key aspects of the divorce-adjustment process during this phase. Each parent may want to become reinvolved with the children in a way that is inappropriate; in a role reversal, children may now feel burdened by their parents (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 359). In addition, the emotional and time commitment to marriage that had existed for so many years may be not lightly given up by one partn er (Santrock, 2011, pg. 515). Many midlife individuals perceive a divorce as failing in the best years of their life. The divorcer might see the situation as an escape from an unsustainable relationship, but the divorced partner usually sees it as a betrayal, or the ending of a relationship that had been built up over many years and that involved a great deal of commitment and trust (Santrock, 2011, pg. 515). An unwanted, unexpected divorce at this stage is traumatic, even when the marriage has been unsatisfactory to each for many years. Starting over as a single person is very difficult, particularly when there is not a clear sense of identity apart from the roles within the marriage. It is especially hard to find renewed meaning in life at this stage of the lifespan (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 359). Additionally, divorce has negative emotional effects on both divorced men and women as they complain of loneliness, diminished self-esteem, anxiety about the unknowns in their lives, and difficulty forming satisfactory new intimate relationships (Hetherington, as cited by Santrock, 2011, pg. 460). A recent study reveled that following marital dissolution, both men and women were more likely to experience an episode of depression than individuals who remained with a spouse over a two-year period (Rotermann, as cited by Santrock, 2011, pg. 460). Other impacts include the lowering of the economic standing of some middle-aged and older women who have a limited number of options (Mitchell, as cited by Santrock, 2011, pg. 515). Late Adulthood As stated in infancy, Erikson developed eight stages of human development. Individuals experience the eighth stage, integrity versus despair, in late adulthood. This stage involves reflecting on the past and either piecing together a positive review or concluding that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life has not been well spent (Santrock, 2011, pg. 594). A well-adjusted older adult feels acceptance with his life and choices; however, when an individual is embroiled in divorce, he has despair and regret over their marital outcomes, thus not experiencing his full potential at this last stage of development. Additionally, in this stage of life, the divorced individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ parents may be dead, and their children and siblings involved with their own lives. As a result, they may feel very isolated from their usual social network and that their opportunities are limited. If one spouse has been left by the other, he often feels ashamed, humiliated, and as a result may isolate himself from former ties and may not have the energy or desire to form new relationships (Peck & Manocherian, 1988, pg. 360). Furthermore, there are social, financial, and physical consequences of divorce for older adults (Mitchell, as cited by Santrock, 2011, pg. 607). Divorce can weaken kinship ties when it occurs in later life, especially in the case of older men (Cooney, as cited by Santrock, 2011, pg. 07), and divorced older women are less likely to have adequate financial resources than married older women (Santrock, 2011, pg. 607). Divorce is also linked to more health problems in older adults (Lillard & Waite, as cited by Santrock, 2011, pg. 607). Why do individuals who are happily married live longer, healthier lives than divorced individuals? People in happ y marriages likely feel less physically stressed, which puts less wear and tear on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body; such wear and tear can lead to numerous physical ailments, such as high blood pressure and hart disease (Waite, as cited by Santrock, 011, pg. 459). Conclusion Divorce has universal ill effects on individuals in all stages of life development. If the family is the building block of society, then marriage is the foundation. However, as fewer adults enter into marriage, more adults leave it in divorce, and more adults begin cohabitating, the foundation of marriage is growing weaker and weaker (Fagan & Rector, 2000, pg. 32). It is best stated by Wallerstein et al. (2000): Divorce is a life-transforming experience. After divorce, childhood is different. Adolescence is different. Adulthood- with the decision to marry or not and have children or not- is different. Whether the final outcome is god or bad, the whole trajectory of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life is profoundly altered by the divorce experience. Marriage is not merely a private preference, but also a social and public good. Concerned citizens, as well as scholars, need to be aware of the long-term consequences of divorces happening every day in America and the implications it has on the stages of development across the lifespan. References Cherlin, A. J. (2011). The deinstitutionalization of American marriage. In A. Guest (Ed. ), Taking Sides: Clashing views in life span development (3rd ed. , pp. 294-307). New York: McGraw-Hill Fagan, P. F. , & Rector R. (2000). The effects of divorce on America (Research Report No. 1373). Retrieved from the Heritage Foundation website: http://www. heritage. org/library/ backgrounder/bg1373. html Institute for American Values. (2011). Why marriage matters, thirty conclusions from the social sciences . New York: Institute for American Values. Peck, J. S. amp; Manocherian, J. R. (1988). Divorce in the changing family life cycle. In B. Carter and M. McGoldrick (Ed. ), Changing family life cycle: a framework for family therapy (2nd ed. , pp. 335-369). Prentice Hall College Div Rhodes, J. L. (2000, Winter). The impact of divorce across the developmental stages. Paradigm, winter 2000. Retrieved from http://www. sequeltsi. com/files/library/The_Impact_of_ Divorce_on_Development. pdf Santrock, J. W. (2011). Life-sp an development (13th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill Wallerstein, J. S. , Lewis, J. M. , and
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Using evidences or facts to run the organization is not a new concept in the management practice. Some managers use their experiences, research, articles and other evidences conducted by business experts to make decisions in their organization. Using these evidences to create solutions to solve problems in the organization is known as evidence-based management (EBMgt). For the proponent of EBMgt, this decisionÃ¢â¬âmaking process has some advantages in its implementation. Creating a good quality decision is a linear function with an improvement of data and information that are used as decision supports. Having reliable evidences and using systematic process, managers can create a better managerial and organizational decisions. In this good environment, organizations also will perform with a flexible way in implementing all decisions because they are resulted from numerous good researches. Finally, this model also will create a learning environment for managers to improve their comp etence to make a good decision. For the opponent of EBMgt, this practice is hard to be implemented in the organization because some reasons. Sometimes, it seems too much information for managers to consider as decision supports. Furthermore, from those data, managers frequently feel difficult to pick the reliable information. When managers think that they have a good evidence, sometimes they cannot use it as their decision support because it is not relevant to their organization in certain conditions. Lastly, managers frequently fall into the wrong business practice because a half-done solution that is offered by consultants. After that, managers often see other consulting firms to try misleading. To understand more deeply about EBMgt, letÃ¢â¬â¢s see an example of PT KAI, the Indonesian state-owned company that operate railways. Since the last four years, management of PT KAI has changed the company from getting loss USD 8.5 Million in 2008 to having profit more than USD 45 Million in 2013. The remarkable change in the company could not be separated from many innovations that has been applied by its management. In 2009, the management did some researches and survey about the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems causing the lack of revenue. After that, they found two main issues that were human resources and services problem. To solve the first problem, the management applied the meritocracy system in its human resources system.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Gustave Courbet and Edouard Manet - the Rise of Modernism - Essay Example As Gustave was a radical so the subjects of most of his paintings compromised of the most ordinary and humblest of people (Discover France: Online). Though Gustave was devoid of any formal training in art and painting, yet he made immense efforts to acquire the varied techniques requisite for a realistic portrayal of his subjects (Discover France: Online). In consonance with many of the Realist masters, Gustave always attempted to capture something plain in many of his works. He used a very limited palette to achieve this impact (Discover France: Online). The paintings of Gustave are marked by thick layers of paint giving way to compositions that seemed to be simplistic (Getty Museum: Online). The artist confined most of his innovation to the choice of subjects rather than on the painting technique. Actually, Gustave hit hard at the Romantic ideals by painting common people like workers and peasants (Getty Museum: Online). Gustave was a bohemian artist who resented the views of conte mporary critics and used to exhibit his paintings in pavilions constructed at his own expense (Discover France: Online). Gustave preferred a dark palette and a rough style to reject the conventional notions of Salon finish (Getty Museum: Online). ... Edouard Manet was born in a typical Parisian bourgeoisie family in 1832. Very much like Gustave, the real interest of Manet lied in the world of art and not in academic pursuits. Actually, it was his uncle Charles Fournier who nurtured and encouraged his interest in art. It is Edouard Manet who is credited for facilitating the transition from Gustave CourbetÃ¢â¬â¢s realism to French Impressionism (MacDonald: Online). Manet, unlike Gustave, believed in a formal exposure to the old and contemporary art and art techniques. This is why he travelled extensively across Italy, Germany and Austria to study the works and techniques of the masters of the yore. However, such an endeavour failed to satisfy the curiosity and zeal of Manet and finally, it was in the works of Goya and Velasquez that he found the requisite answers to his queries (MacDonald: Online). Not to mention, Manet was also inspired by the works of Gustave. Though Manet appreciated the works of the old masters yet he quintes sentially believed that the purpose of art in any era is to reflect the contemporary ideas and concepts by using techniques that are current and up to date (MacDonald: Online). It is no wonder that the subjects of Manet, unlike Gustave who opted for the French country life, were predominantly selected from the urban life of his age and times (Art History: Online). However, like Gustave, his subjects were common and simple and rebelled against the prevalent concept of class. Like Gustave, Manet did reject the conventional modelling and perspectives and showed now predilection for the traditional emphasis on illusionism (Art History: Online). ManetÃ¢â¬â¢s painting technique avoided tight details and the panache for an accurate pictorial duplication (Art History: Online).Ã
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Classroom Attendance and Learning Process Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Classroom Attendance and Learning Process - Essay Example A nonexperimental cause-to-effect study can be performed. Firstly, students are divided into two groups, the control group, and the experimental group. The control group consists of students who are not absent from the first-day class begins until the day before the first examination starts. Students who have not been absent are alphabetically listed and then selected by choosing every second name on the list. Ten students are selected for the control group. If students come late into class, which means before eight oÃ¢â¬â¢clock in the morning, it would not count as absent. The ten studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ first examination results are collected. Students who are not absent from the day after the first examination to the day before the second examination are selected, then listed by alphabetical order and every second name from the last name on the list is chosen. The second examination results are collected for these students. The third and the fourth examination results are gathered in t he same way by using the first and second methods. There are 40 students in the control group, and the average percentage of the test results is then calculated. The experimental group consists of students who are absent at least twice from the first day that class begins the day before the first examination starts. Students who give the professor notice to be absent more than once in advance will count as absent. Also, students who come after eight oÃ¢â¬â¢clock in the morning will count as absent as well, because the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s lecture starts at the beginning of the class and ends around eight a.m., this is the most important time for students to obtain a lot of information from the Professor. If it is missed, then students would be considered as not attending a class. Students who have been absent are alphabetically listed and then selected by choosing every second name on the list. Ten students are selected for the experimental group.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Blackfish Movie Review - Essay Example If ignorance is bliss, then not seeing this film is perhaps best for those who wish to preserve their memories of SeaWorldÃ¢â¬â¢s orcas as majestic creatures; but if one would prefer to see the reality behind the shadows, there is much to be gained by seeing Blackfish, which is a critical look at SeaWorldÃ¢â¬â¢s animal acquisition and caretaking practices. In several ways, the film directed by Gabriela Cowperthwaite exemplifies the purpose of investigative journalism: connecting the dots, asking the tough questions, telling a story, and making an impact on society Ã¢â¬â and, in that sense, deserves to be seen. As a reader of film reviews, I am always looking for advice on which films to see and which films not to see. After all, time and attention is a valuable asset, and no one wants to waste it on a movie that is not worth the time it takes to queue it up. What I look for in a documentary film is not determined by the type of documentary it is Ã¢â¬â but rather that the film itself has a story. That story may be narrated or it may be told just through the events and happenings of the film but at the end of the day Ã¢â¬â there must be a story present. The same is true for any piece of investigative journalist because, at the end of the day, an investigation will have a beginning, a middle, and an end: all of which combine to present a narrative to the reader or viewer. Blackfish is a documentary film directed by Gabriela Cowperwaithe, who built the project with Manny O. Productions. The story is about the captivity of Tilikum, which is an orca implicated in the deaths of three individuals Ã¢â¬â but it attempts to make a broader point about keeping killer whales in captivity. The narrative the film follows is from TilikumÃ¢â¬â¢s capture off the coast of Iceland, to its violent behavior at other sea parks, to its training and performances at SeaWorld. The film was released on January 19, 2013 at the Sundance Film Festival before it was picked up
Management Techniques - Research Paper Example Without increasing employee productivity, it is impossible for a company to achieve required goals and objectives in the given time frame. According to Kimball and Nink (2006), employee productivity and engagement are imperative for the success of companies. That is the reason why managers of almost all companies give extreme importance to increase employee productivity and efficiency. Managers use effective management techniques not only to improve their productivity at the workplace but also to motivate them to do their best for the benefit of the company. Let us now discuss some of the common management techniques that managers of most of the companies use to improve overall functioning of their companies in competitive environments. Some of the most common management techniques being used by the managers all over the world include building effective workforce, growth management, incentives and bonuses, and increasing the use of technology. Let us now discuss all of these management techniques to get a better understanding of how managers use these techniques for the growth of their companies. One of the main management techniques used by most of the managers is to build an effective workforce that can help the company achieve its goals and objectives successfully. According to Mabey and Ramirez (2005), managing development greatly contributes to improved firm performance. Managers usually undergo a complete human resource recruitment process for selecting talented individuals whose job competency matches with the requirements of the jobs being offered. They create job descriptions for all of the jobs that they plan to advertise and post them in famous newspapers and magazines. Upon receiving the applications, they analyze each of those and select only those applicants who possess the required set of skills, abilities, and qualification. Once the mangers are done
Friday, July 26, 2019
Cultural Issues in Public Schools - Essay Example It tries to define what human beings are, by either through historically, socially, and biologically. Culture has been defined with a wide range of behavior patterns and knowledge learned and acquired by a society of people. One of the institutions that promote culture is public schools, where cultural sensitivity in public schools is attributed by mainly race, age and color. Some of the cultural conflict experienced in public schools include-role of women in family decisions as well as practices and symbol systems among cultural groups. Cultural anthropology helps us gain more understanding cultures, especially the complex setups of cultures. The discipline also assists in learning how we can help every stakeholder in a given cultural setup appreciate cultural diversities and run with the right values only as he/she discards values which cannot build such a person. Public schools are institutions where core values of a culture are acquired. Such institutions can determine oneÃ¢â¬â¢s culture through supervision of the teachers, where teachers have the responsibilities of making instructions that is cultural responsive to all students without favoring one group over the other. Mainly, people from minor culture suffers from enculturalization, where situations force him or her ascribe to the major culture (s). Such instances are evidenced as one learns another groupÃ¢â¬â¢s tongue and can communicate in it as though his/her native language. Often than not, a culture with a strong and influential power always determines the latest life style within the public school, and thus, such a culture is esteemed the benchmark. Usually, valuable cultures of minor cultures are rarely appreciated since they are rarely exposed to a point of gaining popularity. On the other hand, major cultures may override other culturesÃ¢â¬â¢ values, thereafter introducing bad cultures into minor cultures. This is mainly evidenced in the way teachers wear; lower class teachers; on the basis of
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Identifying The Child Readiness for Independent School - Essay Example His brilliance in Mathematics has many times been highlighted by the praise that he has received from his teacher as well as his colleagues. He performs very well in the subject and is very active in the classroom in helping out his classmates as well. In the case of Humanities, Jazz tries to understand the subject with proper concepts. He shows great interest in the understanding of human history and the importance that history lays on our lives today. He always strives to learn more with regard to the early human developments as well as the important events that have taken place in the history of the world. Jazz is an active member of the school sports teams. He enjoys playing sports and has the potential to greatly contribute to the school sports community. He has been actively involved in playing sports which include basketball, soccer, badminton, swimming, and golf. Jazz has a very healthy lifestyle and he is actively engaged in extracurricular activities. He is also a very good observer and loves to appreciate the beauty of nature. Apart from playing sports, Jazz is very considerate and helping and it is for this reason that he became a member of the Boys Scouts. He always wishes to contribute to society and be of assistance to people who are in need of help. I do not have any concern with regard to the admission of Jazz in Independent School. I am a proud parent owing to the high achievements of my son in all fields of education. He is an all-rounder and will be able to cope up with the educational environment. I believe that my son will actively contribute to the school community and perform well in his academics as well.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Human trafficking in the United States and is human trafficking related or associated to poverty - Research Paper Example This research sets out to explore a variety of areas related to human trafficking and the intensity of poverty as an alleviating cause of human trafficking. The purpose of the research is to identify factors of poverty and their relationship with human trafficking in the US. These factors include income levels of individuals in their origin countries, their age and sex. The proposed research will incorporate past research and statistics on human trafficking in the US caused by poverty and poor economic conditions in other countries. Moreover, the research will form a quantitative research that will assess the association of the identified three variables with increased level of human trafficking in the US. The proposed research will be useful as it would allow its users to understand what economic conditions and demographic factors are involved and how they contribute to major problem of human trafficking in the US. Based on the nature of our research it is proposed that an exploratory approach is used for this research. Exploratory research provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation (Gettys, 1980). In view of the proposed study the selected research methodology will be based upon quantitative research that will involve collection of data that is numerical and non-descriptive. The data will be tabulated according to the responses regarding each poverty variable collected through the survey questionnaire. Survey questionnaire to be designed for the research and tools for analyzing responses are discussed in another section of this proposal. The secondary data is gathered from numerous resources. This comprises of the academic sources. The use of this secondary multiple source data helps the researcher with a chance to formulate an objective and logical study. Also evidence from the human trafficking database namely IOM, a major cross-national foundation of primary data on
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Drawing on the concept of fashion as a form of communication, critically analyze the role that fashion and clothes have in shaping people's identities - Essay Example This is the reason why fashion is spread out so as to make people understand where they are coming from and how they shall be seen within the related scheme of things. This is the exact manner under which their relevant selves will be highlighted and their personal beliefs shall be bolstered. This paper will discuss how the concept of fashion has evolved over a period of time and how it closely linked with culture and the identity basis. How peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ideologies have been shaped up with respect to fashion is also something that this paper shall delve upon. Before fashion can be studied in-depth, it is required that the role of society under which it exists is taken note of. This is because this very society adopts and adapts it so that the people can have it within their lives to give out a statement. Why society can pose as a serious problem for the fashion domains from making its mark is a significant aspect that should be taken note of. This is because fashion pinpoints the basis of societal representation from vastly different ideologies. These concepts can change with the advent of time and be based on the beliefs of a select few, which is another point of much consideration. It must be remembered here that the society has the final say in making up the realms of fashion and how it is culturally adopted across the board. The leaders within any society of the world would have their own opinions when it comes to fashion and its inter-related pointers (Kim 2013). This discusses the tangent of cultural adaptations which can be had wi thin the relevant thick of things, and which always remain necessary to comprehend. Hence fashion needs to be given a chance on a proactive basis for it to make its mark on a local as well as a global level. This is when it is truly and wholly manifested. The role of fashion and clothes in shaping the peoples identities has been immense and this has been the case
Monday, July 22, 2019
History of education Essay Education has its downfalls. Students are only taught what society sees fit to teach them. This ideology has an astound effect when used as controlling propaganda. If a society doesnt want students to learn about a certain period of history, then it is not taught. Children might hear stories or tales from elders, but the majority is left in ignorance. In the United States, education is a tool to succeed in life. The quality of education that a student receives depends upon many issues. One of the biggest differences in education is between public and private schools. In a society that values money, such as ours, the rich are given a betterÃ background in education than most people. For the general public, students are taught the same material, and excel at different rates than other students. The people that dont grasp the material usually fall behind and become the working class within our society. Those that excel become the backbone of our society, fueling our economy and developing ideas within our world. The difference in education is not only the skill that is provided, but also the attitude. The skills that are learned are definitely important, but the determination and attitude learned is priceless. The communists came up with the idea of equality for everyone. Every person gets the same schooling and education. This concept cannot possibly work. Every person is different, and some people lack the ability to work in a technical field. Everyone has a place in society, and some people will work hard physically all of their lives. Not everyone can be number 1. Inequalities definitely exist in education. The rich seem to get richer, and the poor seem to become poorer. A society consists of different classes of people, and each class is essential to the survival of all. The gap between the rich and the poor can never be eliminated, but by educating our people maybe it can become smaller.
Mahatma Gandhi Essay In 1978, James McGregor Burns wrote about the dearth of leadership. One of the most universal cravings of our time is a hunger for compelling and creative leadership. McGregor BurnsÃ¢â¬â¢ search for moral leadership reveals the tragedy of leadership studies- the confusion of leadership with power. Traditionally, leaders have been defined as those who hold power; allowing presidents, prime ministers and military generals, regardless of their accomplishments, to be considered leaders. Leadership studies have been further detracted from moral leadership because of the confusion of leadership with management. John D. Rockefeller, Henry Ford, and Bill Gates are considered leaders for the economic power they amassed. The confusion of leadership with power and leadership with management has led to a model of leadership that is Machiavellian (manipulative), hierarchical, authoritative, impersonal, elitist, and self-interested. The person I believe to be the greatest leader of the twentieth century exhibited none of the qualities named above. This person held no official political title; he commanded no army and he amassed no great wealth. He did, however, have tremendous influence. This truly exemplary leader derived his power from the conscious citizenry. The leader I am referring to is Mahatma Gandhi. Instrumental in the Indian Independence movement, GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s influence extended beyond the borders of India to the rest of the world. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of non-violence inspired millions, including the great American civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. A simple, pious man, Gandhi identified with and won the hearts of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s most politically and economically marginalized people. He spent his life fighting to overcome modern forms of enslavement and oppression- caste oppression, religious hatred, gender oppression, and, what he saw as the worst form of violence, poverty. The purpose of this essay is to outline GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of non-violence and itÃ¢â¬â¢s influence worldwide as well as the strategies and characteristics that made Gandhi successful. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of non-violence involved civil resistance, refusal to comply with unjust laws. He developed this philosophy while living and practicing law in South Africa. Organizing resistance to the notorious and grossly unjust apartheid system, which provoked significant legislative change, Gandhi left an indelible mark on the South African struggle for racial justice. Upon his return to India in 1915, GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of non-violence became infused with the struggle for swaraj (self-rule). In India, Gandhi raised his philosophy of non-violence to new levels of sophistication. Gandhi believed that organized non-violent civil resistance, not war, would awaken the consciousness of the British to their unjust domination over India. This was the belief that guided the Bardoili protest, the Amritsar Massacre and the Salt March. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s mobilizations were so successful that they tarnished BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s international reputation and provoked irreversible change in BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s policy towards India, illustrating the potential of organized non-violent civil resistance. Gandhi was an uncompromising opponent of violence. He knew that using violence to fight violence corrupts and debases even the most noble of causes and leaves a legacy of bloodshed. If we look to the revolutionary movements of the twentieth century, we see the truth in GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. The Bolsheviks, Maoists, the Khmer Rouge, the Shining Path, Sein Fein and the Palestinian Liberation Organization all left tremendous bloodshed in the paths towards liberation. They left a legacy of death and violence, rather than peace. Gandhi knew that the only solution to hatred, ignorance and fear was love, truth, and forgiveness. He knew that overcoming unjust hierarchies doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean inverting them; it means eliminating them altogether. Gandhi and his followers, like those who risked their lives to hide Jews during the Nazi regime, were prepared to die to make injustice visible for the entire world to see. For Gandhi, truth was a powerful weapon, needing no others. Indeed, truth has proven to be the most powerful weapon humanity has even known. One of the strategies that made Gandhi an effective leader was his ability to build bridges between communities, between upper and lower caste Hindus and among Hindus, Muslims and Christians. Gandhi saw the intrinsic humanity of all individuals, regardless of their caste, religion, gender, or social position in society. Deeply upset by communalism (Hindu-Muslim animosity), Gandhi was able to promote religious harmony through his personal and public actions. When this harmony was threatened, he fasted. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s tremendous ability to bring an end to provincial and religious hatreds was tested time and time again with the Yeravda Pact and his fasts to end violence in Calcutta, Bengal and Delhi. One of the characteristics that made Gandhi successful was his ability to identify with the poor masses of India. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of self-rule distinguished itself from the elitism that characterized the Indian Independence movement, as well as virtually all other Independence movements of this century. Gandhi knew that freeing India from the yoke of imperialism also meant freeing the masses from economic servitude. Gandhi was opposed to Independence for only an elite few; he was fearful of an Independent India that would replicate past religious, caste and economic oppressions. Gandhi provided leadership by example. He exhibited the perfect marriage between personal morality and public action. The best example of this was his use of homespun cloth that provided employment for the poor masses and revived the village economy. In a world in which the inequalities generated by a global economy are becoming more obvious and frightening, GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s critique of technology and economies that benefit the powerful and marginalize the powerless is all too relevant today. The best demonstration of GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership is his worldwide influence. American civil rights leader, Martin Luther King Jr., the Dalai Lama, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Archbishop Belo of East Timor, and countless other leaders have been deeply influenced by Gandhi and his philosophy of non-violence. For example, in 1994, in a Gandhian spirit of forgiveness and reconciliation, Nelson Mandela reached out to his adversaries- the same ones who had tortured and imprisoned him to bring an end to apartheid rule. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest legacy is the notoriety he achieved for advocating non-violence as a means of overcoming oppression. It is this belief that guides the actions of millions of average citizens who participate in civil society movements today across the globe. A tribute to GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s enduring lifetime achievements will be paid by naming the first decade of the new millenium the United Nations Decade of Non-Violence. No greater tribute has ever been paid to a leader of this century. Inspired and profoundly moved by his life and work, I hope the Decade of Non-Violence will truly awaken the consciousness of humanity into liberating ourselves from all and every kind of oppression; using truth as our only tool.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Processes of Cultural Diffusion World has now become a global village. By global village what we mean is that everything is available to every person through the process of free information flow (Ascher, 2010). Globalization has brought everything closer and that has happened through cultural diffusion. Now to understand what cultural diffusion is, we first have to have a fair idea over what is diffusion. Secondly there is well defined process through which a culture is diffused in other cultures and makes it mark. This culture diffusion affects international business to the core because when we say that globalization have made its presence felt in the global economy, we see that it is there because of culture diffusion in different ways. This has also lead to come sort of cultural imperialism which we shall discuss in length in paragraphs to come. Culture diffusion happens when non material and material culture travels to another culture (Wise, 2008). How this happens is a million dollar question which needs to be answered correctly and to the point. To have a profound knowledge over how it happens we go to the basics of it which is culture hearth. Now culture hearth is a place where civilizations first began and then they spread to different areas. Nowadays culture hearths are considered to be in those countries which are well developed and whose culture gets diffused to other developing countries because they have to be in tandem with each other so to have a good and viable trade. If we talk by considering the present world and international trade, we see that this cultural diffusion has spread many cultural straits wherever they got a chance to get diffused. Sometimes this spread is so rapid that no one can find out its origin, timing and spread. There are two different ways in which a culture is diffused to another culture ; one is acculturation and another is Assimilation (Howes, 1996). Both are the ways in which culture is diffused in another culture. In acculturation what happens is that some cultural traits of strong cultures are being taken up by weak cultures like in ancient times we see that Spain had some cultural traits which are taken from Aztecs. Similarly if we see examples in the modern world we observe that a very common greeting hello is also a cultural trait which is being taken by many cultures as a greeting by default. Why that happened so? Because it has its roots in western world and as West dominated for the last two centuries, all the trade, rules and policies were being written and implemented by Western countries which influenced weak cultures to adopt the greeting and many other things which now we call globalization. On the other hand, another way in which a culture can be diffused is through assimilation. In assimilation what happens is that cultures are intertwined with each other in such a way that it is hard to distinguish between where its origin had been. Lets for example when Arabs came to Indian Subcontinent, the Indians had nothing than a piece of cloth worn up to their knees with an open jacket as their vests but Arabs brought a new culture of a full length suit of cloth covering whole body. Now after centuries the Mongols and the warriors from Afghanistan brought minor changes to the original dress which made people easy to carry, walk and most of all made it best attire which can be used for combat purposes also. End result was that the whole thing got assimilated with each other so quickly that there was little difference left between what people wear in Arabian countries mainly the natives of Arab Emirates and the people wear in subcontinent. It specially pertains to the dressing of men. Other thing which effects diffusion is the cultural barriers, time and distance delay and lastly physical barriers (Rauth, 2004). Cultural barriers includes things which are not acceptable to other culture at any cost for example Mc Donald came up in India with its different burgers mainly in beef but as Indians hold cow as sacred, they do not go for it so Mc Donald have to introduce veggie burgers instead of beef as local cultural barrier never allowed any assimilation or acculturization to take place. In time and distance delay, diffusion is hampered because time and distance which it would take to reach another culture would be more and then would become less futile for example Eskimos who live at poles, their cultures and way of living is different from us and still they are yet to have culture diffusion (Howes, 1996). Time and distance delay is somewhat linked with the physical barriers also which also helps in making things bad for cultural diffusion to take place for example t he terrain which is very tough to pass would obviously make things worse for people to travel hence making it hard to diffuse a culture or similarly a sharp weather change would also create a physical barrier for culture diffusion to take place as it would be difficult to take things from one culture to another as culture traits differ from each other or not even close to each other. That culture is diffused either in expansionary diffusion or relocated diffusion (Said, 1994). We have seen that expansionary diffusion have taken place in most of the places in world where West culture is being adopted by the elite and now it is being transmitted to the lower end of the population. This sort of diffusion is known as hierarchical diffusion in where the spread of a new culture takes place from top to bottom. Example of this is the coffee shops like star bucks, which had no concept in south Asia but they are brought by Westerners who came here for business purposes. They first inculcated the trend in elite and now it is being adopted by every person as it have has transformed many old kiosks for betel leaves and cigarettes into coffee shops. Similarly blackberries; many corporate customers have this gadget in their hands which is attracting other upper middle class people to have it too so to have some satisfaction. Other types include relocation diffusion which happen s when people take their innovations with them to a new place like for example Jews. Jews in Europe were really good in scientific knowledge and due to their astuteness they were being victimized and were sent to concentration camps. When after the world war they relocated themselves in different parts of the world, they went with their knowledge and innovations which brought a lot of prosperity around the globe. Another example of it can be AIDS which spread through relocation diffusion as disease is carried by one person who migrates to another society with having a different culture. Now as diffusion is discussed at length, we now see that whether cultural imperialism can be established through cultural diffusion? Yes to some extent I would agree to it because in international business when there is trade and goods flow from one place to another, it not only takes a new product across the borders but also takes its culture to another place. In other words level of diffusion depends on the factors discussed above and also on a culture being strong as to the culture where it is being diffused as being weak (Hobson, 2010). Like for example the trend of suits around the world, from where it came? It came and assimilated in our culture because it was being followed by a strong culture or in cultural hearth which is American and Europe and from there it diffused to all parts of the world. Mens formal suitings, as we all know, have such an importance that now if a south Korean business tycoon needs to do a deal with his Indian counterpart to open up a microchip factory in Delhi, they would be following their own business rules and formalities but their attire would be formal and would follow the strong cultures dress code which is to have a formal dress suit. Moreover the casual dress in China, a decade ago was not jeans and a tee shirt but now they have taken the affect of American culture as it diffused into their society but why? Because more than 70 percent of chinas trade is bound for America so Chinese have adopted some practices of American culture which shows us that yes there is diffusion of culture but that does not proves cultural imperialism at any point; people went towards tee shirts and jeans because they were easier to handle, according to the young generation, as compare to traditional safari suits for men and traditional Chinese for women. Apart from this, cultural diffusion does not reflect cultural imperialism for example whole world is following more or less same accounting principles so the rules of debit and credit are same so to imply that it is a product of a particular nation or it is a part of any culture would be a gross mistake. Yes its true that methods of accounting were first brought up by Chinese but significant changes were made throughout.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Neil Simon's farce, Rumors, gives readers an in-depth look at the lives of ten wealthy individuals attending a dinner party. In an attempt to stay within the social crown, the characters start unsubstantiated rumors about their friends in an attempt to make themselves look better. The hosts of the party, Ken Gorman, and his wife Chris must cover up the fact that a friend of theirs, Charley Brock, has been shot in the ear lobe. They do not know how he got shot, but they decide that he must have tried to commit suicide, and thereby proceed to spread rumors about what they have heard in an attempt to avoid a possible attempted suicide scandal. They first lie to Charley's personal doctor, they lie about what happened to all of the servants, and they finally about a second gunshot heard in the house. When the Gormans first encounter Charley in his bedroom, they immediately call his personal doctor at the theater to tell him that Charley feels just fine. Chris relates the story to the doctor when she says, "Dr. Dudley, I'm afraid there's been an accident... Well, we just arrived here at Charley's house about ten minutes ago, and as we were getting out of our car, we suddenly heard this enormous... thud... It seemed Charley had tripped going up the stairs... no, wait, down the stairs. Down the stairs. But he's all right," (13). Finally, Chris manages to explain to the doctor that Charley had not really hurt himself in the first place and that she felt sorry to have bo...
Friday, July 19, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Saccharin is one of the most disputed sugar substitutes in the United States today. Since 1977, it has been regarded as potentially carcinogenic (Ã¢â¬Å"SaccharinÃ¢â¬ , 1999). The sweetness of saccharin compared to sugarcane is utterly amazing. When measured up to sugarcane, saccharin is 550 times as sweet in its pure state. Also, it is estimated to have a sweetening power of 375 times that of sugar (Ã¢â¬Å"SaccharinÃ¢â¬ , 2000)! This drug may be amazing, but some people say that it causes a dangerous disease, cancer. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1879, while developing new food preservatives a young Johns Hopkins chemistry research assistant accidentally discovered that one of the organic compounds he was testing was intensely sweet. He named it Ã¢â¬Å"saccharumÃ¢â¬ , the Greek word for sugar. He further learned that it passed through the body unchanged and was thus a safe artificial sweetener for diabetics (Anderson, 1995). Similar sugar substitutes are used today. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Saccharin, which is also known as ortho-sulpho benzimide, is a white crystalline solid derived form coal tar. Them chemical formula is known as C6H4CONHSO2 (Ã¢â¬Å"SaccharinÃ¢â¬ , 1999). In 1977, saccharin was banned in Canada, but it has been kept on the market in the United States (Ã¢â¬Å"SaccharinÃ¢â¬ , 2000). It may be legal in the United States, but warning labels are necessary on saccharin-containing foods (Ã¢â¬Å"SaccharinÃ¢â¬ , 2000). In 1997, a group of scientists urged the federal agency to keep the artificial on its list of cancer-causing agents (CSPI, 1997). The National Toxicology Program, NTP, said that declaring saccharin sage would, Ã¢â¬Å"result in greater exposure to this probable carcinogen in tens of millions of peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦ If saccharin is even a weak carcinogen, this unnecessary additive would pose an intolerable risk to the public,Ã¢â¬ (CSPI, 1997). They felt that even if it is weak, it still is a carcinogen. Samuel Epstein, a professor of environmental medicine at Illinois Medical Center in Chicago said, Ã¢â¬Å"In light of the many animal and human studies clearly demonstrating that saccharin is a carcinogenic, it is astonishing that the NTP is even considering delisting saccharin, Ã¢â¬Å" (CSPI, 1997). Many other scientist still today believe and have proven that saccharin is a cancer causing agent (at high doses in lab animals), but still people use it day in and day out at restaurants and their homes. Still many people are trying to have it removed from the list of carcinogens. Saccharin was also test on many laboratory animals, especially lab rats. They concluded that a high dietary dose of sodium saccharin causes urinary bladder tumors in rats (Bell, 1998).
FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Perspective of an Advertisement for Clinique Although Freud's theories of psychoanalysis tended to deal exclusively with dreams, his understanding of the unconscious proves to be entirely useful in deconstructing popular culture. We can take, for example, the Clinique advertisement into consideration by viewing the image itself as a public (perhaps collective) and published dream. Freud may not have been particularly interested in the visual features or compostion of the image, yet these components are vital to the translation from conscious to unconscious thoughts. First, we can examine the bar of soap itself, as depicted in the scene. We are at once struck by the grotesque and commanding zie (certainly unrealistic) of the bar; yet it also appears insolated - from a consumer, from production, etc. The bar is shown in another (unusual) manner: its yellow-green colour portrays a "clean" and "natural" product, but also conveys an immaculate, medicalized one. The bubbles surrounding the bar also carry stylistic features; they appear as perfectly "round", "firm", "gentle" and "clean" (although we can see a lather/suds, the bubbles remain completely "pure" in themselves.) Finally, the pouring water re-iteratres this sense of purity and nature; the waterfall-like motion generates feelings of tranquility and harmony. (The text found in the advertisement supports these sentiments of purity, carlessness ["allergy tested" = worry free] and nature, and for the purpose of my examination require no further mention.) At this point we are able to undertake a Freudian analysis of the image. While the components mentioned can be understood as the visual, manifest content, we can attempt to translate their hidden, subverted, latent thoughts. According to Freud, all manifest content is subject to distortion by the "dream-work" (the mechanism by which such thoughts are altered, and thus we must decode the image by paying particular attention to the hidden elements (the ones that resist our analysis most). If all thoughts are generated in the unconscious, as Freud believes, then we must center our analysis on these hidden or latent components. One can see how, in this Clinique advertisement, Freud's theory of the dream-work is logical; both dream-distortion and dream-censorship are evident. An initial psychoanalysis of the image reveals an inherent desire to be "wholesome" (or "moral", as depicted by the rounded bubbles), "clean" (or "moral", as depicted by the medicalized soap) and "pure" (or "moral", as depicted by the clear, natural water). It is my understanding then, that this advertisement appeals to the viewer as a "sinner", or flawed individual, and aims to reconcile this deficiency through morality. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Perspective of an Advertisement for Clinique :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Perspective of an Advertisement for Clinique Although Freud's theories of psychoanalysis tended to deal exclusively with dreams, his understanding of the unconscious proves to be entirely useful in deconstructing popular culture. We can take, for example, the Clinique advertisement into consideration by viewing the image itself as a public (perhaps collective) and published dream. Freud may not have been particularly interested in the visual features or compostion of the image, yet these components are vital to the translation from conscious to unconscious thoughts. First, we can examine the bar of soap itself, as depicted in the scene. We are at once struck by the grotesque and commanding zie (certainly unrealistic) of the bar; yet it also appears insolated - from a consumer, from production, etc. The bar is shown in another (unusual) manner: its yellow-green colour portrays a "clean" and "natural" product, but also conveys an immaculate, medicalized one. The bubbles surrounding the bar also carry stylistic features; they appear as perfectly "round", "firm", "gentle" and "clean" (although we can see a lather/suds, the bubbles remain completely "pure" in themselves.) Finally, the pouring water re-iteratres this sense of purity and nature; the waterfall-like motion generates feelings of tranquility and harmony. (The text found in the advertisement supports these sentiments of purity, carlessness ["allergy tested" = worry free] and nature, and for the purpose of my examination require no further mention.) At this point we are able to undertake a Freudian analysis of the image. While the components mentioned can be understood as the visual, manifest content, we can attempt to translate their hidden, subverted, latent thoughts. According to Freud, all manifest content is subject to distortion by the "dream-work" (the mechanism by which such thoughts are altered, and thus we must decode the image by paying particular attention to the hidden elements (the ones that resist our analysis most). If all thoughts are generated in the unconscious, as Freud believes, then we must center our analysis on these hidden or latent components. One can see how, in this Clinique advertisement, Freud's theory of the dream-work is logical; both dream-distortion and dream-censorship are evident. An initial psychoanalysis of the image reveals an inherent desire to be "wholesome" (or "moral", as depicted by the rounded bubbles), "clean" (or "moral", as depicted by the medicalized soap) and "pure" (or "moral", as depicted by the clear, natural water). It is my understanding then, that this advertisement appeals to the viewer as a "sinner", or flawed individual, and aims to reconcile this deficiency through morality.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Foil Stafford Argument Analysis Imagine, a day in the great United States of America where absolutely no goods are sold nor purchased, in order to increase the awareness of the people about overconsumption. This is supposed to be an innovative way to expose environmental as well as ethical consequences due to consumerism, however this stance would fail horribly and should not be considered. Could one fathom having all choices guided by the candid government. America does not have an all controlling government simply because there is no need for one.The United States should not implement an annual Buy Nothing Day because the government was not formed to control the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ on their moral or selfish problems. Establishing an annual Buy Nothing Day does not leave room for exceptions. If someone is out of gas then they can not get to work. If someone is in desperate need of food they might steal. Americas strongest yet weakest asset is its economy, so with it in a constant fluct uation, why interfere with its natural processes.Ultimately, a Buy Nothing Day will solve nothing because majority of the participants will not know the cause. Not to mention, it would be virtually impossible for everyone to be on the same accord, so trying to advocate this idea could potentially lead to violence. Hypothetically speaking, say a Buy Nothing Day was attempted in the United States, it would more than likely be boycotted against. For example, during the Progressive Era, alcohol was banned by legislation so prohibition was boycotted. Instead of people not drinking, Americans drank more than when it was allowed.So, in correlation with prohibition, a Buy Nothing Day would increase spending either day before or after, resulting in a spike of consumerism than a normal day, contradicting the original purpose of Buy Nothing day. In retrospect, even if the country refrained from buying on the mandated day, eventually consumerism would occur without buying things on that specifi c date because consumers will buy on a need-based timeline. As citizens we are still capable of audaciously driving to work instead of taking public transportation, or pass up water for an ice cold soft drink.One cannot assume that a Buy Nothing Day will, in any significant way, affect Americas pattern of overconsumption. Individuals and organizations who are for the Buy Nothing Day believe that it would show the American people the value of a dollar. Well, while this may be true for those who have money, what about the people who on a daily basis undergo a Ã¢â¬Å"Buy NothingÃ¢â¬ phase because they can not afford to purchase goods regardless? They say that it will promote consumerism as an excessive part of American lives so people will not buy.The process of informing consumers might work temporarily, but when it comes down to it people will do what they want to do. Finally, conservationists state that the plan would do nothing but make the United States more of a discipline nat ion, plus a plethora of European countries do it. Nevertheless, how many countries can say they are thriving like America? Not that many, plus a nation wants its people to spend money because that helps the economy flourish. If people stop spending money the economy plummets.Also, what if this one day thing, turned into a mass movement and people partook in it for multiple months. It spells nothing but catastrophic. In conclusion, economic stability strengthens nativism and spending hard earned riches makes them an even stronger nation. Consumerism may be an issue in today's society but a Buy Nothing Day would essentially skyrocket consumerism, making the point completely worthless. America is a strong united nation as is, and with the program put in place or not, it will remain that way.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
wide-awake By Farhan Ahmad sports stadium n superstar 0802090-059 lag of focal point & Administrative Sciences University of Gujrat INTERNSHIP REPORT A half dozen weeks internship under(a)write submitted in fond(p) fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of the live OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION in news subjects from power of Management & Administrative Sciences University of Gujrat by FarhanAhmad at a d protest(p)er place Roll no(prenominal) 08020920-059 The Internship report of Mr. Farhan Ahmad is pass - Internship Supervisor Letter of Transmittal The Coordinator,module of Management & Administrative Sciences University of Gujrat Subject endurance of Internship get across Dear Sir, I detect with my cordial thanks the co accomplishment & encouragement you go forthd and it f entirely ins me huge plea surely enough in submitting my report to you. With regard to the opport solidies you fork overd, I act solo to figure out several(prenominal) occasion n early(p)-nigh fan industry and its requisite prospects. During my 6 weeks t all(prenominal)ing session I wealthy person ga at that placed & shapeed a great experience for myself . fin bothy I entirely pleaseed this assembling of term paper with your nonable institution, mortal support & encouragement.I should be glad and ready to co-operation with whatever you may ask for march on clarification. Thank you. Yours Sincerely, - Farhan Ahmad Roll no. 08020920-059 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I devote this internship report to nably the employees of GFC (Pvt. ) Ltd. Whose kind instruction and help, during my stay in vacuum tube, do me to learn a mass near dispa consecrate tasks at skipper level. At this bite I likewise lack to give a tri ande to my t for distributively oneers by dedicating this report to Faculty of Management & Administrative Sciences, University of Gujrat. board OF CONTENTS Contents Page No.Letter of Transmittal 05 Ack outrightledgement 06 executive direct or Summary 07 1. Introduction of Organization08 draft History08 clubs Credential 14 lastschool smart sets Achievements16 associations Certificates 17 Type Of c entirelyer-up 19 graded Level Of confederation_____20 Boards Of coachs_____21 Communication Model 22 2. connections segments__23 2. 1. corrupt Department24 2. 2. brushup Department26 2. 3. yield Department27 2. 4. Sales and sell Department30 2. 5. look for and ontogenesis31 2. 6. inwrought scrutinize31 2. 7. trade & Import Department32 2. 8. Accounts Department34 2. 9. hu small-arm beings imaginativeness Management37 2. 10. Field of Activity37 3. Other Learning43 4. Objectives of endurevas the Organization 44 5. The Business Principles of GFC 44 6. Suggestions48 7. References51 8. Appendix52 9. Contacts of Internee and Organization 54 EXECUTIVE compendium normal fans Comp any(prenominal) (Pvt. ) Ltd. Is one of the outmatch most Fan bring nearrs in Pakistan which is accepted for best flavour an d design in Fan manufacture.It is a great extol for me that I live completed my six week internship as per degree requirements in HR plane division of GFC. thither ar several divisions dieing in GFC which implicate bargain fors Raw corporeal inspection inter component part Sales and selling look for and Development Accounts Department tender choices Management internal Audit exportationing & Import I was first delegate to the HR surgical incision for first four weeks and indeed rotate to several(predicate) subdivisions in the last hardly a(prenominal) weeks so that I may accomplish wind the on the pipeline(p)s and col lugation of different segments.It was a genuinely veracious experience in GFC and I nonice any incision and its run lowing keenly and gave my suggestions to the top counsel for the betterment of GFC. INTRODUCTION OF ORGANIZATION 1. 1. Brief History superior general Fan Company (Pvt. ) Ltd. was formed in 1954 as a sm each manufact uring unit for galvanic fans. The ac participation grew rapidly from its modest start beca subprogram of the fictional character of its harvestings. The lodge was one of the major merchandiseers of fans in 1960s to Iraq. However, the come with was in trouble in late 1970s re stick outable to differences in its partners.The present tense management took over the association in 1978 and Mechanical organize Muhammad Ilyas took over as master(prenominal) Executive of the company. Under his propelling leadership the company grew rapidly and G. F. C became major recognized brand for fans in the Pakistani go downet. Mr. Muhammad Ilyas, the header Executive who is a foreign trained Mechanical place, brought in new technologies for fan manufacturing from veritable countries and alter G. F. C cross federal agencys in a constant summons. Automatic Capstan Lathe Machines and Die Casting Machines were introduced in 1982. Automatic Winding Machines were brought from Taiwan in 1985.A japanese sword youthful Enameled Wire Manufacturing curriculumt was installed in 1987 for the manufacturing of forest enameled copper wire for throw utilisation as hearty as for the cut-rate sale in the local trade. charge card crack moulding Machines were installed in 1993 to manufacture own elastic split for malleable fans same Exhaust Fans, Bracket Fans, Circumatic Fans and Table Fans. A modern joyride agency was laid up for the manufacture of Dies, Molds and Models and so on The tool room consists of Wire Cut Machines, EDM Machines, come forward Grinders, Cylindrical Grinder, Shaper Machines, CNC Milling Machines and counterpart Milling Machines.Automatic Rotor residue Machines were introduced in 1995 to pass on improve the calibre of fans. Modern Continuous Stamping Presses were installed in 1997 for manufacture of forces of all eccentric person of fans such(prenominal) as detonating device, Pedestal, Bracket, Exhaust and Circumatic Fans a nd so on Slitter Machine for slitting the galvanic steel sheet coils was installed in 1999. The company started manufacturing Washing Machines in 1996. Due to its lumber and excellent finish the product has become an instant success. Gas & electric Geysers ar being manufactured since socio-economic class 2000.The Chief Executive Mr. Muhammad Ilyas is a pioneer in the merchandise of galvanizing fans from Pakistan. To initiate the tradeation from Pakistan he attended an external order of battle for electric caral appliances in 1993 in Abu-Dhabi. The company besides participated in umteen make do delegations as well as exhibitions lay by exportation Promotion post and Federation of sleeping accommodation of Commerce & Industry in Bangladesh, Yemen, Saudi-Arabian Arabia, and Dubai, Bahrain. Qatar, Sudan, Egypt, U. S. A. and so forthtera G. F. C was the first Pakistani company to export fans to the Middle-East. G. F.C Fans became an instant success cod to their charac ter and durability in all the grocery stores where these were introduced. planetary Fan Company has as well stick up a unit to manufacture capacitors utilize in electric fans, Washing machines and motors. Mr. Muhammad Ilyas (Chief Executive) and Mr. Muhammad Ijaz (Finance bus) ar al tracks on the look out for the current engineering for manufacturing of electric fans as well as for collective management of the company. Now G. F. C has established a new estimator segment which lionise its Executives update about any inquires.This shows the occupy of management non all in manufacturing engineering. But they withal k straight saturnine the implicationance of info technology. G. F. C has stepped in this Millennium risey fitted out(p) with manufacturing and information technology for Corporate Management and Marketing. G. F. C stub rightly use up that they pass on all the best technologies in its whole kit and boodlehops, which ar available for Design, toil. O ur products argon now of International Standard, and we argon truly an International Company. Our 800 Employees and Management argon committed to virtue in Quality. G. F. C. was the pioneers in export of fans from Pakistan.G. F. C. has got octad Export Trophy Awards for Fans and early(a)(a) galvanic Products like enameled Copper Wire. 1. 2. Main Competitors General Fan Company has perfect competitor in the commercialise for different products, principally in fan manufacturing field. The main competitors of G. F. C (General Fan Company) argon ? Pak fan ? kinglike fan ?Younis Fan 1. 3. First actor receipts General Fan Company is currently have sexing the first mover advantage of exports. G. F. C is the only company which starts to export to other countries. Thats the reason company has been rewarded export trophy for 08 meters. G. F.C being the most popular brand as for the electric fans in Bangladesh most of the fan manufacturers in Bangladesh ar using G. F. C take mar k beside the manufacturers of china who atomic number 18 export their electric fans to Bangladesh with the same Trade Mark. To come apart the manufacturing and selling of fake G. F. C Fans which atomic number 18 registered vide Trade Mark registration No. 62674 date 22. 11. 1999 the Chief Executive of the company, Engineer Mohammad Ilyas, visited Bangladesh. 1. 4. Our Core Values ?Competent ? act ?Creative ?Cooperative ?Caring 1. 5. tidy sum STATEMENT We believe that we haveA unique product which has been explained by G. F. C, And no other country manufactures a foot fan like ours. This product is most useful in the fervent tropical humid climates. We want to mark this product end-to-end the populace, And we foresee this product to dominate the entire International market. We want to set up an excellent after(prenominal)- sales-service, And quit separate supply service to each and any country. We as well as want to set up home service centers by dint ofout the worl d. We believe that within 10 old age We potty acquire an export pose of US Dollars 40 Million. 1. 6 committal STATEMENTTo produce such feeling products, Which provide entire mirth to all our clients the world over. 1. 7 QUALITY form _or_ constitution of administration STATEMENT Quality constitution of G. F. C is to produce such whole tone products, which provide our guest the entire satisfaction the world over. to partake this obligation, we continually update employees skills by introduction of new technologies. 1. 8. COMPANYS CREDENTIAL General Fan Company (Pvt. ) Ltd. is a pioneer in the export of electric fans from Pakistan. To initiate the export from Pakistan we participated in International exhibition for electrical appliances in 1993 in Abu-Dhabi.The company likewise participated in many trade delegations as well as exhibitions arranged by Export Promotion Bureau and Federation of Chamber of Commerce & Industry In Bangladesh, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahra in. Qatar, Sudan, Egypt, U. S. A. etc. G. F. C. was the first Pakistani company to export fans to the Middle-East. G. F. C. Fans became an instant success due to their look and durability in all the markets where these were introduced. By the grace of God ?G. F. C. has been acquiring the Export Trophy from FPCCI for the export of electric fans for many years. The growth rate of fan export from G. F.C. has been unvaryingly much(prenominal) than century% per annum for the last 5 years. 1/ tertiary of the total fans exported from Pakistan. ?G. F. C. has elephantine International orders many measures more than the previous years for the financial year 2001-2002 and we ar smell forward to export fans to all parts of the world including United States and Europe. ?Water and spring development authority has issued the renewal of Registration in 1997. Registration Renewal is an just success that G. F. C. has come upond. ?ISO-9002 Certificate assures that Manufacturing Quality of Electric Fans are according to International Standards. Engineer in Chief Branch has condition the certificate of Enlistment/Registration dated 23-2-2000 on best proficient doing. ? urge agreement for supply of G. F. C. Fans for Army trapping film directorate at 30 April 2001 and is a big achievement for G. F. C. Fans. ?Pakistan Standard intromission has certified according to 1961 ordinance. The institution hereby grants to G. F. C. Fans. (Hereinafter called the License) this License is used as standard mark. 1. 9. COMPANYS ACHIVEMENTS 1. 10. Companys Certificates 1. 11. TYPE OF COMPANY General Fan Company (Pvt. ) Ltd. is a union company of dickens brothers. . 12. HIERARCHICAL take OF COMPANY 1. 13. BOARD OF DIRECTORS thither are two families of jointly managing the General Fan Company. every last(predicate) boards of directors are family members. 1. 14. COMMUNICATION manikin There is no well outlined model of communication. I observed that quest communication model. 2. COMPANYS DEPARTMENTS To pull in an judicature many segments unravel in it, so that an institution may achieve its aims and objectives efficiently. To check into efficient pass a airings of G. F. C the sections that are hammering in it are as There are 09 discussion sections expireing in the Organization Purchases ?Raw stuff inspection ?Production ?Sales and Marketing ?Research and Development ?Accounts Department ? homo Resources Management ?Internal Audit ?Export & Import 2. 1. Purchase Department Purchase incision in every manufacturing organic law is of most importance. Because this segment provides the other divisions as payoff incision with their basic desires. This section is in like manner trusty for the quality of the products produced in that geological formation, as the quality of product depends upon the quality of birthday suit corporal. In G. F.C bleak corporeal is too obtaind from outside thats wherefore they are in fate of a surg ical procedure department to fulfill the purchase requirements. This department purchases raw(prenominal) signifi scum bagt for the outturn department. It is the responsibility of this department to provide quality framework within minimum represent. To achieve this purpose, the put across department of G. F. C purchases raw hearty, in the simpleness of two charabancs i. e. Mr. M. Kamran and Mr. Zia Hussain, from both sources i. e. ?By domestic purchases ?By importing raw material In interior(prenominal) Purchasing, G. F.C purchases raw material regarding the manufacturing of, fans, backwash machines, room air coolers, etc. and by and large for this purpose markets of good standards are visited. G. F. C purchases raw material locally from Gujranwala, Lahore, Gujrat, etc. In imports, G. F. C mostly imports those materials that are either expensive or of low quality in Pakistan. Importing is do to keep the standard of action high as well as fitty per unit cost at some reasonable point. The material that in include in imports of G. F. C are ? aluminium Sheets. ?Copper Rods. ?Plastic raw material. ?mini Motors Chemicals Here is lists of those countries from which mostly imports are through by G. F. C are from ? China ?Taiwan ?Korea ?United Kingdom ?Japan ?Hong Kong 2. 2. Inspection Department Those organizations that dont compromise on quality keep an inspection department whose work is to inspect the raw material for quality of raw material and its quantity. If any material is of little quality or of that quality that is not acceptable to the organization, this department doesnt give permission to enter such material within the boundaries of organization and material is returned as it is.In G. F. C in that respect is an in charge for the inspection of raw material and it is his responsibility to make sure that the purchase do for organization is for that material which is of best quality. This department restricts the launching of such materi al that is either of ? less(prenominal) quality ?Defective ?From un definitive dealer ? non useful This department ensures that material purchased is of ? trump Quality ?Contains no defect ?From authorized dealer 2. 3. Production Department Production department in any organization is of immense look on. Performance, working, lucreability, etc. epends upon this department. All the products of organization are manufactured here. It is the department where baron of organization either in labor form or in financial form is applied over material to make products for the organization. So that organization may sell those products in the market to get profit. Like other organizations G. F. C is also remunerative great attention towards Production Department. harmonise to C. E. O of G. F. C, Production and sell Departments are of more importance to them. This department works under the supervision of Mr.Asim Ijaz who is the Director of production and he has 4 foremen under his author ity so that authority is delegated to others in order to make sure that work is release as at should be. stave in production department is extremely skilled although most of them are not too much educated scarce they are skilled person in whom 20 members of management and 700-800 are labors and these are the true assets of the company In G. F. C production department is divided into further sub departments as ? Motor class ?Body partition ?Fitting department ? wadding element 2. 3. 1. Motor Section I.In this sub fragmentalization of production department motors for miscellaneous products of G. F. C are produced. In this segmentation motors for ceiling fans, pedestal fans, room air coolers, etc. are manufactured. II. Ceiling fans use a variety of motors i. e. 36 48 and 56 are used. And this ingredient produces the motors for all. III. In Pedestal fans motors used are entirely different from the motors used in ceiling fans. This component also produces the motors for pede stal fans. IV. Meanwhile room air coolers also use motors in two ways. V. Motors for fans VI. Motors for body of water pumps. This section produces the motors for all. This section covers sub sections as a.Winding Section In this section copper wire is make winded, for type of motor that is going to be used in the Production of other products. b. kink Testing Section In this section coils made in winding section are tested whether they are in working condition or not. lonesome(prenominal) approved coils are sent to motor section. 2. 3. 2. Body Section In this section of production department bodies of various products are manufactured. No matter whether the body is made of plastic or it is made of metal. In this section, bodies of fans, washing machines, coolers, heaters, and other products are manufactured. This section is comprised of the spare-time activity make section ?Plastic Molding Section ?CNG milling section ?Copper Wire Section i. Blade Section In this section vanes for different kinds of fans are produced. Fan blades, blades for air coolers, etc. are produced here retentivity in mind that blades should be good spirit and efficient in working. ii. Plastic Molding Section In this section production department plastic is molded in various shapes to make bodies of fans in plastic those parts of ceiling fans that are of plastic. In short this section makes all the plastic parts of products. iii. Copper Wire Section This section makes the copper wire for own use and also as a product of G.F. C to be sell in market and for using in its own production process e. g. in making motors. iv. Fitting Section This section is responsible for(p) for the assembling of different parts that make up a product. In this section rotor and stator are combined to make up a complete motor. Similarly in blade section blades are assembled with their connecters. In this department other things like pedestal fans are assembled. This section makes the product in final shape to be packed and sell. v. Packing Section In this section products are packed to be delivered to selling and market department to sell them in the market to have income.This department provides the facility of dear packing and making the products in fascinating packing to catch more and more customers. 2. 4. Sales and Marketing Marketing and selling department is very alpha for every company either is multinational company or domestic company. This department is a link between organization and customers. It s the responsibility of this department to make the customers veritable about the products produced in the organization. On the other hand this department is also responsible to sale the products that are manufactured in the market. There is only one Director of marketing i. . Mr. Nabeel Ahmad Ilyas, son of C. E. O Mr. Muhammad Ilyas, and one manager in sales department is Mr. Abdul Rehman. Marketing department is responsible to provide the goods in the market accordi ng to the charter of the customers. Focus the marketing department is to providing products at proper place at proper clipping. Staff of this department is highly certified and skilled. This department concentrates on qualified staff who analyze the market and suggest the manager how and where they should to present it. In the off-season, G. F. C also sells its products in large quantity by offering the particular(a) discount.They give special discount on buying their products. According to a survey made by G. F. C only 40% fans in the market are from recognized and registered firms be 60% are private and unregistered firms. Their products sale in KARACHI is heavyer and their market consider is 18% out of 40%. 2. 5. Research and Development Research and development (R) department in any organization quarter lead the organization away from others because this department makes a research in the market regarding future trends, expected changes that are going to be in customers taste and demand.It also suggests to the organization what was the response of previous variation of product and what is to be innovated. In G. F. C R&D is not working in the form of a well arranged and not in a proper form of a department. hardly a(prenominal) employees Mr. Engineer Shehbaz as the manager of this questionable department do this work of R&D department. He is alone responsible for the research work. 2. 6. Internal Audit Internal Auditing is done to check the working of Accounts Department. for the most part it is done to prevent the errors in interchange matters of the organization either intentional or unintentional. G. F.C has also its internal Account Department that works in the supervision of Mr. Malik Tafheem has taken the responsibility of internal Auditor. The work of this department is to show au and whencetic put down of accounts that should be error free. As chances of impostor and misappropriation prevail in every organization so this is the respo nsibility of this department to fail all the tries that are made in this regard. Note External Audit is done by the M. A Chaudhary. 2. 7. Export & Import Department This department is revenue firement generator for the organization and it ensures that organization is gaining in the market.This department is accountable for the delivery of products to the markets where the organization wants to compete and capture market by satisfying customers with their quality The strength of G. F. C fans depends on this department. Department has been comprised on highly skilled and experienced people, they perform their duties and procession the exports with in well-established structure. The manager of this department is MR. Shahid Ali. This department is responsible for contacting with foreign raw material suppliers, search for the new suppliers when take, import all the raw material required by production department.When company started its exports, there was no planned procedure. But n ow after growing the company uses latest technology for the export of products. This department plays an essential piece to capture well challenging ball-shaped market and deal with all import and export contemporary challenges under high responsibilities and company strategy and indemnity department endeavor to augment the export channels. G. F. C fans company first time export their products in AMERICA. Export is a major part that distinguishes it to the other companies. Export countries of GFC fans are, ? Saudi ARABIA ?YUMAN ?AFGHANISTAN INDONASISA ?DUBAI ? unify KINGDOM ?UNITED STATE OF AMERICA 2. 8. ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT Accounts Department in any Organization is important because of its working. This department shows the progress of organization and allocates the add up to purchase department for purchases. It also pays the rewards to other factors of production in the form of rent, wages, salaries, interest on loans, electricity bills, payments to suppliers, managing compan y accounts etc. In G. F. C accounts department works under the responsibility of Mr. Shahid-Ur-Rehman who is the General get hold ofor of the organization.This department is liable to allocate come approved by C. E. O to various department on their need. This department also decides about the suitable method of paying wages to labors. In G. F. C accounts department has set the method of wages to production labor as PIECE come out SYSTEM. This department prepares one-year reports of the organization in the month of September every year because September is the closing month of yearly year in G. F. C. This department is also held responsible for the distribution of annual bonuses and relieves to the workers that C. E. O declares to them. 2. 8. 1. SOURCES OF RECEIPTS Recovery from sales through show room ?Sales issuance of left over raw material ?Export fans 2. 8. 2. PAYMENTS ?Wages ?Staff Salaries ?Utilities expenses ?Govt. Dues 2. 8. 3. GOVT. PAYMENTS ? utilisation Dues ?Sales t ax ?Electricity, Sui gases and telephones expenses 2. 8. 4. PAYMENTS TO SUPPLIERS ?The suppliers are gainful on credit/ gold initiation ?Venders are paid on cash base of operations ?Foreign suppliers are paid up to a throttle level 2. 8. 5. Functions & Operations of Accounts department Double entry accounting governing body is used in G. F. C. Following are the main duties performed by the Accounts department ? Voucher preparation crypt abridgment & Posting of Vouchers ?Prepare a bidding of daily receiving & payments ? conceptualisation of Financial records ? immediate payment disbursement ?Monthly Trial commensurateness preparation ?Ending adjustments ?Monthly hard cash flow projection ?Bank satisfaction Statements ?Sales Invoices ?Sales Tax Invoices ?Report to FBR Account department also performs interest extends ?Comparison of cash flow, Budgeted Vs actual ? detonating device dropment ?Fixed assets schedule report ?Comparison over heads report budgeted Vs actual ?Fi xed overheads ?Variable overheads ?Preparation of production statement ?Preparation of Stock statement Month wise production and its sales value ?Wages and salaries statement ?Preparation of report on working great ?Receivables ?Raw material including stocks on way ?Finished goods stocks ?Advances and prepayments ?Cash/Bank balance on hand 2. 9. HUMAN mental imagery MANAGEMENT 2. 9. 1. HUMAN RESOURCE AND while PLAN Human Resource polity is to acquire young, fresh, energetic and active associates to meet the existing and future workforce requirements and providing its associates maximal opportunities for internal mobility through personal tuition and development to enable them to take high positions.Human Resource Division has to have succession plan for each expose note/area to make sure the continuity of operations in the pertinent division and to fill the temporary/ steadfast vacancy. 2. 9. 2. FIELD OF ACTIVITIES My field of Specialization is M. B. A (HR), so I work 6 w eeks under the supervision of General motorbus in General Fan Company, 5 weeks in Human Resource Department, and 3 weeks in observing other departments. General coach-and-four is responsible of handling all company records, and HR related activities. The G. M of G. F. C is very hardworking and very honest person.I ready the whole company report in my internship period, in which I discuses all the departments and their functions. Most of my internship time was spent in HR department, now I volition discuses the all functions and operations of HR department, their critical analysis and testimonials. Human Resource Department is actively working in G. F. C fans private control Gujrat. Basic responsibilities of this department are as follows ? Hiring Employees ?Firing Employees ?Developing dressing Plans for Employees ?Maintaining judgement Reports ?Maintaining the Records of Employees 2. 9. 2. 1. HIRING EMPLOYEESThere is a proper process for hiring an employee in G. F. C fans p rivate limited and this process has several steps which are as follows ? Need Analysis ? agate line Requisition ? transmission line Advertisement ? kind the Applications ?Initial Interview ?Testing ? encourage Interview ?Final Assessment ? preference ? reading 2. 9. 2. 2 Reference hateful Hiring In G. F. C Gujrat employees also hire through references of already active employees but test and interviews are behavioured for them as well. 2. 9. 2. 3. flack EMPLOYEES If an employee does not work according to outlined rules then it is responsibility of HR theater director that employee should be fired.If any employee commits any unofficial work during his job then he will be fired. If any employee is not working up to the mark and not achieving his targets then HR Manager can fire him. 2. 9. 2. 4. Recruitment and Selection bidding In GFC the recruitment and plectrum is made mostly on employee referrals and sometimes if needed advertisement is made on the newspapers for the selec tion of vacancies. The recruitment and selection process of metro includes the following steps CV with paid reference Evaluation of application and CV Call for Interview Temporary job letter after success of interviewClearance certificate from previous organization Medical certificate Completion of exertion period Issuance of permanent or contract job letter 2. 9. 2. 5. descent DESCRIPTION Job is described at the time of interview and a complete job description is made on the permanent job letter of the employee. A job description form has been real for the job description of every employee. 2. 9. 2. 6. developing TRAINING PLANS FOR EMPLOYEES HR Manager is also responsible for developing develop plans for employees (workers & staff) and Internees. I. acknowledgment of train postulateThe train demand of employees (staff & workers) are identified by the function that they perform and by the respective departmental head. For a new employee the training involve are identifie d in the job descriptions. For existing employees (in case of workers) the training unavoidably are identified in the Training Needs Assessment Form. The applicable departmental head fills the Training Needs Assessment Form. For staff members the training inescapably are assessed on ACR that is change by the germane(predicate) departmental head at the end of every financial year. Training needs are identified in G. F. C fans private limited.Gujrat to enable employees to live up to routine task and to enhance their professional capabilities, enable all persons to reach their full potential, to introduce new techniques and skills in a timely manner and to improve the strength and metier of the companys activities. The cogency and experience required for persons performing tasks affecting quality are documented in the job descriptions. II. Training establish on the TNA (Training Need Assessment) for the workers HR Manager develops an annual training plan. This training plan i s then forwarded to the respective departmental head on with the training attending sheets.The designated trainers conduct training on the dates mentioned in the plan. The TNA (Training Need Assessment) for the staff members is conducted by the respective Departmental Heads on their ACR ( yearbook Confidential Report). The General Manager is responsible for developing Annual Training Plan (for executives) based on the recommendation of the departmental heads, as desired by the departmental head or management time to time. For a new employee who has been hired at the staff level the HR Manager and relevant head of department develop an orientation plan. After the orientation manikin is over the employee submits a written report.Based on this report, the departmental head gives his recommendation that the employee needs further training or not. If further training is required a further orientation plan is developed and subsequently the training is provided. III. Evaluation of train ing Departmental heads monitor the training assigned by the trainers. After proper scrutiny and getting the recommendations of the trainer about the trainees, the departmental heads does the evaluation of the training imparted. Assessment of effectiveness of training of employees (staff members) is done on their Annual Confidential Reports.Assessment of effectiveness of training imparted to (non-executives and workers) is done on the Training Plan. IV. Training records Training record is retained in the HR Department. The HR Manager is responsible for up-dating the training records of the employees. These training records are maintained in the respective shoots till the privacy or transfer of that particular employee. All executives and staff are made awake(predicate) of the departmental quality objectives and role of their activities and their part in the achievement of objectives. 2. 9. 2. 7. MAINTAINING APPRAISAL REPORTS idea Report is assessment of employees which is done by head of department. At the end of the year head of departments make the approximation Reports for each employee (Staff only) working in their department. These appraisal reports then forward to HR Manager who further manage these reports according to the remarks which are apt(p) by the head of department about the employee. According to the remarks record of employees are upgraded. Appraisal decides the percentage of increment in pay of employees or for promotion. Report also decides whether employees need any further training or not. . 9. 2. 8. MAINTAINING THE RECORDS OF EMPLOYEES Managing the record of employees is also responsibility of HR Department. When the employee is hired all of his data and documents are stored in a appoint and this file is stored. Employees data is also stored in computer by assigning him with a computer mandate. Now with the passage of time all new documents including training certificates and appraisal reports are updated into the files of employ ees. Any employees file has the same number which is computer code of employee. 2. 9. 2. 9. ATTENDANCE SYSTEMAttendance is made on daily basis at the main gate with entry and move time transferred to the HR department. Overtime attendance is taken by the supervisors of the concerning department and conveyed to the HR department for the overtime wages etc. 2. 9. 2. 10. JOB ANALYSIS Job analysis of every employee is made by the HR department with the help of departmental managers and employee performance according to their job description. 2. 9. 2. 11. COMPENSATION AND come back MANAGEMENT SYSTEM On the basis of the job analysis annual increments and promotions are presumption to the employees twice a year.For great employees special pay packages are offered and rewards and given in different ways to the employees for their motivation. 2. 9. 2. 12. leading STYLES In thermionic vacuum tube I observed two types of leadership manners that are unequivocal leadership and Democratic leadership. Autocratic style of leadership is observed in operating(a) managers while democratic style of leadership is observed in middle and corporate level managers. 2. 9. 2. 12. HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES A proper system of health and recourse is established at metro by providing the workers with safety devices, trainings, and by providing proper uniforms.Metro Hi-Tec provides medical and safety services to its employees in different ways. 3. OTHER WORKS CAUSED TO expertness ME DURING INTERNSHIP Apart from the before mentioned tasks . I worked on trusted other assignments in GFC as well as got to learn certain other works such as. I learnt the exact way of punching the documents. Because this to the first thing that one who gets to learn while in an office as instead of absolutely punching it one should first fold it and than keeping in line with the middle of summon one should punch. I learnt how the documents are filled and used to do a lot of filing. I went through typing certain application and letters. I worked how data is hunt down in the computers. I learnt how the phones are attended. I used to go to banks for obtaining the statements for settlement of accounts. I passed daily entries in the Journal and leger accounts. Documents relating to taxation purposes were also filled by me 4. OBJECTIVES OF STUDYING THE ORGANIZATION a)To promote competency and effectiveness by providing competent and high-caliber professionals in the area of Management Accountancy. b)Identify the duties of the financial manager within the firm. )Understand why wealth maximization, rather than profit maximization, is the firms goal and how economic value added (EVA), d)To analysis what plays the role of Banks with the Firm. e)To estimate a firms profitability relative to its sales, asset investment, & owners fairness investment. f)In fact, we have studied in GFC personal restrain Company because it is committed to these following Business Principles. 5. THE BUSINESS PRINCIPLES OF GFC A. Corporate philosophical system Maintaining a global viewpoint, GFC is cave in to planning products of the highest quality yet at a reasonable price for worldwide customer satisfaction. )Dynamic manufacturing and marketing of prestigious products to the entire satisfaction of customers. b)Create ideal working surround for continuous development of product and personnel. c)Provide adequate return to share holders and fulfill corporate civic obligations. B. Management Policy a)Proceed always with aspiration and youthfulness. b)Respect sound theory, develop fresh ideas, and make the most effective use of time. c)Enjoy your work and encourage open communications. d)Strive constantly for a harmonious flow of work. e)Be ever mindful of the value of research and endeavor. )Respect for all man has priority over others. g)Man is the key in controlling i. e. machines, methods and materials. h)Follow 3S spirit i. e. small, able and speed. i)Believe in 3A GFC on App roach i. e. be on substantial Spot, look at the Actual Spot and confront the Actual Situation. j)Be a good corporate citizen assume a responsible role in community. C. anteriority Standards Of Conduct a) asylum There can be no production without safety. b)Quality To achieve the No. 1 customer satisfaction, Metro is dedicated to supply the prestigious products of its highest quality, through our smart team work. )Productivity With safety and quality each of it will strive to excel the performance in all fields of its activities i. e. Production, Marketing & Planning, After Sales Service, Finance, Logistics & Imports and Human Resource & Administration etc. D. Quality policy To achieve the No. 1 customer satisfaction, GFC is dedicated to supplying the prestigious products of its highest quality through its smart team work defined by the regulatory parameters & continually improving its strategies and goals for better performance. E. Environment policy GFC (Pvt. Ltd Gujrat (Pakistan) , being responsible member of the society considers the preservation of the global environment as a crucial concern. GFCs environmental philosophy is firmly based on the following guidelines a)Recognize the impacts of the significant aspects on the environment resulting from activities, products and services b)Formulate objectives and targets to control the effects of activities on local environment as for as technically feasible c)Operate in conformity with relevant environmental laws, regulations and other requirements that apply to its activities d)Create environment friendly attitude among associates )Commitment to continual improvement of the environmental performance and check up on of the environmental management system to ensure its suitability, adequacy and effectiveness. F. Safety, Health and Environment GFC (Pvt. ) Ltd Gujrat (Pakistan) conducts its agate line responsibly and in a way to make sure Health, Safety and auspices from Environmental aspects of its associate s and the society. GFC implements and maintains the programs that provide reasonable self-assurance that the business will do the following a)To comply with all applicable government and internal health, safety and environmental requirements. )Design facilities and conduct operations in a way that avoids risk to human health, safety and the environment. c)To psychoanalyse and communicate the known hazards of operations with relevant health, safety and environmental protection information to potentially affected persons. G. Operating principles a)Always keep the deadline. b)Never make excuses. c)Teamwork. 6. SUGGESTIONS During the training I have observed number of problems and here are some suggestions of my observations. G. F. C management has strong capability to increase the production rate by reducing the cost of production.It can be achieved by investing more in time span research studies and reengineering related department structure. Concluding points ?In accounts departmen t there is no well define job description. There moldiness(prenominal) be a list of province for each employee. ?There is no management in working environment. They should adopt a management functions in their department. ?Human Resource and Accounts department should hire at least(prenominal) two employees more. ?In HR department, there essential racks for files. ?Vision Statement is to long, it must be one or two sentences ?G. F. C sleek over emphasizes on production concept ?There is very less monitoring so there is need to be tightening the control by using digital monitoring system in account department. ?Local market of gujrat area can be captured ?G. F. C system is based on Microsoft windowpane 98, so it should be upgraded as in market window xp is available. ?MIS system should be very efficient that manual work can be eliminated. ?R&D department in G. F. C is not very much active so management should have to investigate and invest more to overcome this. Every departmen t should initiate research work that provides technical support to find out cloak-and-dagger facts that are the primary source of irregularities. ? economic employees and fresh management team with latest and modern techniques and valuable exposure can figure out managerial problems. ?There is less commitment among the workers. To improve this piazza workers problems should be intercommunicate properly. ?Top management should be awarded by stocks (shares) for getting more efficient work and involvement in the organization. ?There must be proper uplifts and reward system for the encouragement of employees. G. F. C has very few targeted markets they have to explore more to enhance their profitability and worth. ?Salary packages are not very much attractive for the employees which should be revised. ?G. F. C is doing well but it should add-up the doing good factor (Societys benefits). For awareness workshops and seminars should be conducted regularly. ?Appraisal report should be pre pared on merit rather than on personal biasness. ?Up to date promotional strategies should be adopted (print and electronic media). ?For selection of price and new consumers need, company should conduct market survey. G. F. C is presently targeting only a small number of markets and there are still a large segment of markets which can be explored. ? more than the export the more the profit will be because of this G. F. C can enjoy a lot more profit than existing. ?G. F. C can easily increase its businesses through external debt because of its already construct credibility. ?By the reduction in cost of production G. F. C can enjoy the more profit margins. ?If the employees discipline and control mechanism should properly apply then it will results more involvement and output. By introducing more brands and designs by adequate use of R&D G. F. C can grow more ? G. F. C still adopting production concept. There must be forward thinking ? G. F. C must investment in outside the business . ?Less monitoring or check and balance. There must be check and balance. 7. REFERENCES ?Director marketing (Nabeel Ahmad) ?Director Finance and Purchase (Ijaz Ahmad) ?General Manager Finance (Shahid-ur-Rehman) ?www. gfcfans. com ?www. google. com ?Chief Accountant(Muhammad Imran) ?Accounts Officer (Nasir Khan) ?Assistant Accountant (Mian Abdul Haseeb) . APPENDICES ?Job Description Form Job call ________________________________________ Summary description _____________________________ _______________________________________________ Major tasks and responsibilities _______________ _____ ___ _______ ______________ ______________________ ___________ ________________ ___________________ small(a) functions _ _______________ ___________ _____ _ ________________ ____ _______ ___________ ______ handled by & report to____________ ______________ _ ________________ ____________ ____________ _____Supervise_ _______________ _______________________ Assist with other jobs_ ________________ ____ ________ _ ________________ ___________ ________ ____ _____ Qualifications & training ___ ____________________ ___ _ ________________ ___________ ___________ ______ _ ________________ ___________ ___________ ______ cleverness requirements___________ _________ ___________ _ ________________ ___________ __________ ______ _ ________________ ___________ ____________ ______ Experience _________ ___________ _______ ___ ______ Personal characteristics required__ _____ _____________ ________________ ___________ ________ __________ somatic requirements__________ _______ ____________ Salary range minimum_____ ______ maximal__ ______ Work hours _____________ _______________ _________ Average hours ___ _________ ____________ _________ _ Days off per week_ ________________ ______ _________ Overtime never _______seldom ________ lots _______ Other benefits_ ________________ ______________ ____ ________________ _______________ _________________ Work environment_ _______________ ________ _______ _ _ ________________ ______________ ___________ _____Safety responsibilities_ ________ ________ ____ ________ _ ________________ ______________ ______ ________ _ _ ________________ _______________ _____ ________ 9. CONTACTS OF INTERNEE & ORGANIZATION Internees ContactsOrganizations Contacts Afzaal Ahmad S/O Muhammad InayatGeneral Fan Company, Private Limited Mailing holler Mailing Address General Fan Company G. T. Road, Gujrat-Pakistan. electric cell +92-300-5448133Telephone +92-53-3520301-03 E-mail ID emailprotected com afzaal. emailprotected com emailprotected com Fax +92-53-3521427-3515303 Email emailprotected com